Difficult situations and challenges in the workplace are inevitable, but the way you choose to solve them can evolve. Being able to think independently in strategic, systemic, conceptual, creative, and critical ways allows you to offer innovative solutions and make more effective decisions.
In addition, when scope is well defined, communication is clear and consistent, it helps to build trust and credibility and leads to more effective results. The professional courses help you find new ways to strategically, and systemically solve workplace challenges to move you and your organization beyond the status quo and achieve goals.
We provide training and consulting services to different Educational and industrial institutions in Nigeria and outside Nigeria. Our team is made up of trainers and consultants with experience in the Educational and industrial Sectors including; Lecturers, Assessors, Trainers, Facilitators and Teachers.
For Individuals that wish to improve their employability potential and workplace performance. This involve one-on-one training.
For Individuals that wish to improve their employability potential and workplace performance.
Our Creative Courses
Project Management Professional (PMP)
Benefits of PMP in your career:·
- It displays your impartial approval for your knowledge in project management domain and professional experience on a global level.
- PMP certification gets you recognition not only within your organization but also among peers, supervisors and other prospective employers.
- The project management certification leads to greater rewards and the credential also give the boost to your salary.
- PMP certifications demonstrate excellence in the field by fulfilling the standards established by project management practitioners across the globe.
You can take up this course from one of the most reputed and leading Project Management training company known as Skylight Global.
We will provide you complete guidance with the official courseware as we are authorized Project Management professional trainer.
- Introduction to PMP and CAPM examinations
- PM Concepts
- Understanding Process Groups involved in Project Management and relevant Areas of Knowledge
- Understanding the Integration of various processes, configuration and Change Management processes in a project
- Managing the scope of the Project
- Managing the timeline of the Project
- Managing the cost of the Project
- Managing and Maintaining the Quality Control
- Managing the Human Resource available for the project
- Plan and manage the communication for the project
- Take into account the risk involved in the project
- Plan and procure the project
- Identify, plan, manage and control stakeholder engagement in the project
- Chapter 1: What Is a Project?
- Chapter 2: Creating the Project Charter.
- Chapter 3: Developing the Project Scope Statement.
- Chapter 4: Creating the Project Schedule.
- Chapter 5: Developing the Project Budget and Communicating the Plan.
- Chapter 6: Risk Planning.
- Chapter 7: Planning Project Resources.
- Chapter 8: Developing the Project Team.
- Chapter 9: Conducting Procurements and Sharing Information.
- Chapter 10: Measuring and Controlling Project Performance.
- Chapter 11: Controlling Work Results.
- Chapter 12: Closing the Project and Applying Professional Responsibility.
The Project Management Institute (PMI ®) is the leading global Organization for project management, doing an extraordinary job in advancing the science and application of modern techniques for project, program and portfolio management. In order to help ensure the highest professional and ethical standards in the community of professional project management, PMI has a series of credentials, among which stands out the Project Management Professional (PMP ®) certification.
To understand the importance of PMP credential, it’s necessary to remember a bit of the history of modern project management. Many describe Project Management as the “Science of getting the results.” In the business-oriented world and rapid changes we live in today, we create standards, techniques and tools of project management in order to “get results”, as fast and effectively as possible.
The science of modern project management has evolved since World War II. Some consider the Manhattan Project to build the atomic bomb in the 1940s as the birth of the modern project management. To complete this project with success, the brains behind this effort created new methods of planning, executing and controlling, surpassing the unknown and the logistical problems. Many of these concepts we use today in project management.
Since then the modern science of project management has evolved. NASA, the U.S. Department of Defense and European public organizations were some entities that contributed to this development. The year of 1969 marks the establishment of the Project Management Institute to create standards, advance the science and promote professional responsibility in project management. The first project managers received their PMP credentials in 1984 and PMI published the first set of standards in project management, called The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK ® Guide) in 1987. The PMBOK® guide has received updates in 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2013. The guide has translations into 10 languages. Therefore, we have a common (and worldwide) language with regard to managing projects.
The PMI estimates that there are more than 20 million professionals working in project management around the world. Of these, more than 430,000 are PMI affiliates, from 193 countries and more than 600,000 are already PMPs, according to data from December 2013. That is, despite being a respectable number, is low the percentage of professionals who actively participate in the activities of the Institute. In Brazil, where I live, there are about 13,000 affiliated members and approximately 15,000 PMPs. Thus, in the next few years there will still be a broad field of growth for the profession.
This means that it is increasing the demand for accredited professionals in project management that may lead the global organizations in a new era of project management. In Brazil, currently, the demand for these professionals is many times greater than the number of available PMPs. For each 3 slots open seeking PMPs only one can be supplied by professional certified, while the other employers have to settle for pros, but uncertified. The eighth edition of the salary survey conducted by PMI (PMI Project Management Salary Survey. Pennsylvania: PMI, 2013) indicates that receive a salary about 19% higher than non-certified ones. Among the largest Brazilian employers of certified professionals are noteworthy Petrobrás and IBM.
Studies such as the CHAOS Manifesto (Standish Group, 2013) indicate that only about 39% of the global IT projects are successful to meet the budget, schedule and quality planned. However, the same studies indicate a success rate above 75% for projects that employ the modern concepts of project management. These facts make up the forces behind the huge interest in modern project management techniques.
Thus, many project managers, especially those who did not plan to act in this role, are returning to school to acquire new skills to better fulfil their responsibility, in order to improve their employability or advance in your current organization. Many companies are paying these advanced studies, as they realize that the formal training combined with practical experience is an investment that pays off.
Many initiatives connected with management have emerged in recent years. Total Quality, Just-in-Time, Continuous Improvement, Critical Chain, etc. – all these tools are valuable, but address only specific areas. After some time, their importance within a larger panorama disappears. Project management is the “hot” topic today. However, project management tends to grow and strengthen, mainly due the fact that the techniques work for small projects or for multinational conglomerates, incorporating all learning from the past with specialties from quality and business administration, enabling its use. We can ensure that project management is here to stay for many years and it has a great future.
Human Resource Management Professional (HRM)
Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on the recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in an organization. As you can imagine, all of the processes and programs that are touched by people are part of the HR kingdom.
The HRM department members provide the knowledge, necessary tools, training, administrative services, coaching, legal and management advice, and talent management oversight that the rest of the organization needs for successful operation.
Many HR departments are responsible for organization development that generates the culture of the organization. They are charged with oversight responsibilities to ensure that their organization appropriately builds teams and inspires employee empowerment.
Additional activities sponsored by HR management can include employee and community outreach. They are frequent mentors and members of employee teams that address philanthropic giving, employee engagement activities, and events that involve employee families.
Human Resource Management and Line Managers
HRM functions are also performed by line managers who are directly responsible for the engagement, contribution, and productivity of their reporting staff members. In a fully integrated talent management system, the managers play a significant role in and take ownership responsibility for the recruitment process. They are also responsible for the ongoing development of and retention of superior employees.
Organizations also perform HRM functions and tasks by outsourcing various components to outside suppliers and vendors. The tasks that are most frequently outsourced are those that take HR time and energy away from the HR activities that provide the most “strategic value to the company”.
This outsourcing most frequently involves payroll functions, but vendors and external consultants can help an organization with HRM in many ways.
Specifically, many HR departments outsource background checking, benefits administration, training such as sexual harassment training, temporary staffing, and the production of employee handbooks, policy manuals, and affirmative action plans.
HRM’s Changing Focus
HRM is the organizational function that deals with or provides leadership and advice for dealing with all issues related to the people in an organization. HRM, as such, deals with compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.
HRM is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives.
HRM is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced. The HRM function is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of employees and to ensure that employee programs recommended and implemented impact the business in positive measurable ways.
The New Expectations of HR
Gone are the days when HR staff received direction from the executive team as to their priorities and needs. HR is now expected to sit at the executive table and recommend processes, approaches, and business solutions that improve the ability of the organization’s people to effectively contribute.
The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate their value. Employees who work in HRM must demonstrate their value by keeping their employer and company safe from lawsuits and the resulting workplace chaos. They must perform a balancing act to serve all of an organization’s stakeholders: customers, executives, owners, managers, employees, and stockholders.
It is difficult to underestimate the importance of an effective, modern HRM function within an organization.
An employee who retired from HRM twenty years ago would not recognize the competence and capability of the best HRM organizations today. You can choose to move your HRM function out of the dark days and into the light. Organizations that do—are best served.
According to HR management expert John Bratton, “Human Resource Management is the process of linking the human resource function with the strategic objectives of the organization in order to improve performance.” Adopting an HR strategy that is concerned with the organization’s larger mission and goals has multiple advantages and benefits for the company.
Helps Evaluate HR Policies
The premise of strategic HRM is that the company’s policies and procedures related to employees should fit into the organization’s broader strategic plan. Developing these links between HR and strategy has the distinct advantage of helping the organization to evaluate its current HR policies and to replace outdated or inefficient policies with ones that promote a better workplace environment and employee relations. As the company evaluates its HR policies, it can use the strategic plan’s aims and objectives to evaluate each HR process. Those that fall out of the strategic vision can be reformulated or discarded in favor of better ones.
Strategic HRM also helps to foster a sense of team spirit and camaraderie within the organization. A company’s strategic vision will ideally rely on input from a broad range of stakeholders including managers, employees, customers and investors. Creating an HR strategy that aligns with this sense of open communication can have the major benefit of helping stakeholders feel like their opinions are valued and meaningful to the company’s owners and executives.
Helps Monitor Progress
While the strategic vision of the company can influence the creation and evaluation of HR policies, the reverse can also be true. Human resources can help the organization monitor its progress toward achieving its stated goals and objectives in the strategic plan. Much of the strategic plan is likely to rely on the cooperation and support of employees and individual departments or functions within the organization. HR has a key role to play in making sure that all of these components of the strategic plan are implemented in a timely and effective way. The advantage of this marriage between strategy and HR management is that the company’s executives and its HR function are consistently monitoring one another’s progress and tweaking processes for the benefit of the company and its employees.
Keeps the Organization Legal
A final advantage of the human resource management strategy is in keeping the organization compliant with laws relating to employees, salary, insurance and the like. The laws and policies governing business are complex and can vary between jurisdictions, but HR has a key role to play in making sure that the organization’s strategic plan is not only presently legal but is also amendable enough that it can adapt to changing times and changing legal circumstances.
HR improves the company’s bottom line with its knowledge of how human capital affects organizational success. Leaders with expertise in HR strategic management participate in corporate decision-making that underlies current staffing assessments and projections for future
workforce needs based on business demand.
Training and Development
HR training and development specialists coordinate new employee orientation, an essential step in forging a strong employer-employee relationship. The training and development area of HR also provides training that supports the company’s fair employment practices and employee development to prepare aspiring leaders for supervisory and management roles.
Employee relations specialists in HR help the organization achieve high performance, morale and satisfaction levels throughout the workforce, by creating ways to strengthen the employer-employee relationship. They administer employee opinion surveys, conduct focus groups and seek employee input regarding job satisfaction and ways the employer can sustain good working relationships.
International Customer Service & Relationship Mgt (ICSRM)
BENEFITS OF CUSTOMER SERVICE AND RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT
In the world of business, keeping customers satisfied and retaining them is vital to continued success. Often, the employees who work face-to-face with these customers are the ones who determine their levels of satisfaction, keeping them content with the company and preventing them from looking elsewhere for someone to meet their needs. Instead of ignoring the impact your employees can have upon the overall satisfaction levels of your client base, keep this power in mind and encourage employees to make the most of the power they wield, helping your business achieve success.
Ensuring Customer Satisfaction
While those who don’t deal directly with customers may be able to hypothesize what will make customers happy, only those who interact face-to-face can ensure that they are truly satisfied. To do this, however, employees must feel as if they are able to make modifications to the general business practices to truly satisfy their customers. If your employees feel compelled and empowered to meet customer needs, you can ensure higher levels of customer satisfaction and likely improved customer retention.
Customers’ impressions of a business depend in large part on the environment present in the workplace. While managers may have a preference as to how their workplace will feel, employees are the ones who actually set the scene. Employees impact the business environment through the ways in which they interact with each other as well as how they respond to customers. If employees behave in a professional-yet-inviting manner, they may be better able to please customers and make the business environment an inviting one.
Ideally, customers and workers create relationships, keeping customers coming back. To craft these relationships, workers must do more than just the bare minimum and create connections with the individuals they serve. This may entail asking customers for details about their lives or remembering customers’ common orders, allowing them to expedite the process in a fashion quite pleasing to the repeat customers. While management cannot enforce the building of relationships, they can select employees who appear open and willing to build relationships.
Representing the Product
Employees often provide customers with their initial impressions of the products the company offers. Though the workers who deal directly with customers may not be the people who select or develop products, they are the ones who give customers information about them, selling the products and proving to the customers that the products in question are ones they need. To ensure that workers can represent the products they sell effectively, managers must educate their workers on these products and ensure that they possess the knowledge necessary to tell workers about them in an informed and engaging manner.
Office/Organization Management (OM)
If you’re a great organizer with strong administration skills and a flair for leading and motivating teams, then a career in office management could be for you
Office managers, also known as administrative service managers or the business office manager, are responsible for making sure that a company’s support staff is running smoothly. This can take many forms, and depends on the size and type of company, so it could mean organizing, planning and overseeing a large pool of administrative assistants, or working with one or two people in a smaller office.
Office Managers make sure that the office runs smoothly, which includes keeping supplies in stock, making sure administrative and office staff are doing their job, working with vendors, planning events, making sure the facilities are clean, orderly, and safe, and analyzing supply and energy consumption to determine cost-saving and efficiency savings.
Health, Safety & Environment (HSE Competency)
Why choose health, safety and environment management from Skylight Global?
Whether you are a building commissioner, main contractor, oil Services Company, Agriculture Sector, Banking Industry or Construction Company, we can help you:
- Suggest proactive measurements that prevent incidents before they manifest as accidents
- Coordinate all health and safety aspects of your project
- Draft health and safety plans and verify any existing or proposed plans
- Comply with all relevant HSE regulations and requirements
- Ensure the health and safety of workers, decrease accident risks and improve onsite productivity
- Gain expert advice and recommendations for future safety maintenance and create a long-term safety culture
World-class health, safety and environment management from the leading supplier
As a leading supplier of health, safety and environment management, we offer you unrivalled expertise, resources and expertise. Plus, with our unique global reach, we can dispatch experienced and qualified safety coordinators to your projects site or factory – wherever your operations are based.
Our services for health, safety and environment management include:
- Safety coordination during the design, fabrication, construction and operations phases
- Recommendations for preventive measures
- Coordination documents
- Safety risk analysis
- Verification and development of health and safety plans
- Internal license controls
- Verification of access permits
- Access controls for designated areas
- Certificate control for cranes and operators
- Control of collective protection
- Control of personnel protection equipment (including helmets, gloves and shoes)
- Safety signage control
- Determination of transfer/clearing routes
- Supply of external HSE coordinators
- Guidance/coordination concerning Occupational Health and Safety regulations
- Regular recording and reporting, focused on non-conformities, corrective/preventative actions and statistical data
- Safety training courses
Contact us today to find out how our health, safety and environment management can help you comply with all HSE construction requirements.
We are a Saftey training provider with speciality in Health, safety and environmental management (HSE), Quality and Project management as well as consultancy services provider; we are passionate about what we do because we understand that Health and Safety Management, Project Management and Quality Management is at the core of your business whatever and wherever you operate. We believe that with the right skills you can achieve anything anywhere and anytime.
Our objective is to become the leading provider for training, business support and certification. With us, customer satisfaction; quality service and innovative delivery are the core values of our business excellence.
With our years of experience in the business of training, we have attained the heights of sound training ethics and standard quality service. We are a Health Safety and Environment Accredited training provider in Nigeria providing NEBOSH International certification training courses; Health and safety training courses; ISO certification training courses.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
UNEP defines Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a tool used to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a project prior to decision-making. It aims to predict environmental impacts at an early stage in project planning and design, find ways and means to reduce adverse impacts, shape projects to suit the local environment and present the predictions and options to decision-makers. By using EIA both environmental and economic benefits can be achieved, such as reduced cost and time of project implementation and design, avoided treatment/clean-up costs and impacts of laws and regulations.
Although legislation and practice vary around the world, the fundamental components of an EIA would necessarily involve the following stages:
- Screeningto determine which projects or developments require a full or partial impact assessment study;
- Scopingto identify which potential impacts are relevant to assess (based on legislative requirements, international conventions, expert knowledge and public involvement), to identify alternative solutions that avoid, mitigate or compensate adverse impacts on biodiversity (including the option of not proceeding with the development, finding alternative designs or sites which avoid the impacts, incorporating safeguards in the design of the project, or providing compensation for adverse impacts), and finally to derive terms of reference for the impact assessment;
- Assessment and evaluation of impacts and development of alternatives, to predict and identify the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, including the detailed elaboration of alternatives;
- Reporting the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or EIA report, including an environmental management plan (EMP), and a non-technical summary for the general audience.
- Review of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), based on the terms of reference (scoping) and public (including authority) participation.
- Decision-makingon whether to approve the project or not, and under what conditions; and
- Monitoring, compliance, enforcement and environmental auditing. Monitor whether the predicted impacts and proposed mitigation measures occur as defined in the EMP. Verify the compliance of proponent with the EMP, to ensure that unpredicted impacts or failed mitigation measures are identified and addressed in a timely fashion.
Risk Assessment Control & Management (RACM)
Risks can come from various sources including uncertainty in financial markets, threats from project failures (at any phase in design, development, production, or sustainment life-cycles), legal liabilities, credit risk, accidents, natural causes and disasters, deliberate attack from an adversary, or events of uncertain or unpredictable root-cause. There are two types of events i.e. negative events can be classified as risks while positive events are classified as opportunities. Several risk management standards have been developed including the Project Management Institute, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, actuarial societies, and ISO standards. Methods, definitions and goals vary widely according to whether the risk management method is in the context of project management, security, engineering, industrial processes, financial portfolios, actuarial assessments, or public health and safety.
Strategies to manage threats (uncertainties with negative consequences) typically include avoiding the threat, reducing the negative effect or probability of the threat, transferring all or part of the threat to another party, and even retaining some or all of the potential or actual consequences of a particular threat, and the opposites for opportunities (uncertain future states with benefits).
Certain aspects of many of the risk management standards have come under criticism for having no measurable improvement on risk; whereas the confidence
At work you can use these three Think-Safe steps to help prevent accidents.
Using the Think-Safe steps
1. Spot the hazard
A hazard is anything that could hurt you or someone else.
Examples of workplace hazards include:
- frayed electrical cords (could result in electrical shock)
- boxes stacked precariously (they could fall on someone)
- noisy machinery (could result in damage to your hearing)
During work experience, you must remain alert to anything that may be dangerous. If you see, hear or smell anything odd, take note. If you think it could be a hazard, tell someone.
2. Assess the risk
Assessing the risk means working out how likely it is that a hazard will harm someone and how serious the harm could be.
Whenever you spot a hazard, assess the risk by asking yourself two questions:
- how likely is it that the hazard could harm me or someone else?
- how badly could I or someone else be harmed?
Always tell someone (your employer, your supervisor or your health and safety representative) about hazards you can’t fix yourself, especially if the hazard could cause serious harm to anyone.
- ask your supervisor for instructions and training before using equipment
- ask for help moving or lifting heavy objects
- tell your supervisor if you think a work practice could be dangerous
If you are not sure of the safest way to do something on work experience, always ask your work experience supervisor.
3. Make the changes
It is your employer’s responsibility to fix hazards. Sometimes you may be able to fix simple hazards yourself, as long as you don’t put yourself or others at risk. For example, you can pick up things from the floor and put them away to eliminate a trip hazard.
The best way to fix a hazard is to get rid of it altogether. This is not always possible, but your employer should try to make hazards less dangerous by looking at the following options (in order from most effective to least effective):
- Elimination – Sometimes hazards – equipment, substances or work practices – can be avoided entirely. (e.g. Clean high windows from the ground with an extendable pole cleaner, rather than by climbing a ladder and risking a fall.)
- Substitution – Sometimes a less hazardous thing, substance or work practice can be used. (e.g. Use a non-toxic glue instead of a toxic glue.)
- Isolation – Separate the hazard from people, by marking the hazardous area, fitting screens or putting up safety barriers. (e.g. Welding screens can be used to isolate welding operations from other workers. Barriers and/or boundary lines can be used to separate areas where forklifts operate near pedestrians in the workplace.)
- Safeguards – Safeguards can be added by modifying tools or equipment, or fitting guards to machinery. These must never be removed or disabled by workers using the equipment.
- Instructing workers in the safest way to do something – This means developing and enforcing safe work procedures. Students on work experience must be given information and instruction and must follow agreed procedures to ensure their safety.
- Using personal protective equipment and clothing (PPE) – If risks remain after the options have been tried, it may be necessary to use equipment such as safety glasses, gloves, helmets and ear muffs. PPE can protect you from hazards associated with jobs such as handling chemicals or working in a noisy environment.
Sometimes, it will require more than one of the risk control measures above to effectively reduce exposure to hazards.
Business Planning & Entrepreneurship Development (BPED)
Operations & Production Management Professional (OPMP)
“Operations and Production Management (“OPM”) is about the transformation of production and operational inputs into “outputs” that, when distributed, meet the needs of customers”.
Operations and Production management is an area of management concerned with designing and
controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production of goods or services. It involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient in terms of using as few resources as needed and effective in terms of meeting customer requirements. It is concerned with managing an entire production system which is the process that converts inputs (in the forms of raw materials, labor, and energy) into outputs (in the form of goods and/or services), as an asset or delivers a product or services. Operations produce products, manage quality and creates service. Operation management covers sectors like banking systems, hospitals, companies, working with suppliers, customers, and using technology. Operations is one of the major functions in an organization along with supply chains, marketing, finance and human resources. The operations function requires management of both the strategic and day-to-day production of goods and services.
In managing manufacturing or service operations several types of decisions are made including operations strategy, product design, process design, quality management, capacity, facilities planning, production planning and inventory control. Each of these requires an ability to analyze the current situation and find better solutions to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of manufacturing or service operations.
Web Design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites. The diversity of the skills required by a web developer are many, often to the point it is difficult for a web designer to excel in all aspects. As a result, a team may cover the Web Design process, with each member of the team having their own strengths, specialties and role in the development process.
Web Design involves implementing specific solutions that follow the business rules and objectives outlined by the client. Web Designers develop a professional relationship with their clients, interacting with them in order to develop a deep understanding of the requirements and convert these into a website specification. Strong design and communication skills, coupled with research techniques and a grasp of target audiences, markets and trends, will ensure initial client satisfaction and credibility for the Web Designer.
Having completed the website planning and design, the Web Designer then integrates the website with third party tools and platforms. During the development process web designers design and develop the databases, create programs, tests and debug the website. The current trend is to also integrate the website with Social Media and take advantage of the leverage these modern platforms bring.
All these skills may apply equally to the re-design or an upgrade of an existing website.
A Web Designer has many employment opportunities. This can range from being a self-employed freelancer to being employed by media organizations and advertising agencies. Web Designer positions may be broad in scope or specialize in an area such as Graphic Design, Client Management, Front End Development, Back End/Server Side Development and User End Designer. Whichever role a web designer chooses to specialize in they will need to have access to ICT facilities, open source libraries and frameworks.
High performing Web Designers may have broad or specialist web-related skills. However, to excel they must have a strong grasp of copyright law and a well-developed personal code of ethics. They must understand artistic values, and take personal responsibility for being constantly at the forefront of trends and web technology. They must also be responsive to clients and have the ability to work in structured and unstructured teams and groups. These qualities enable the Web Designer to contribute and take advantage of this rapidly developing aspect of modern communications technology.
A database management system (DBMS) is system software for creating and managing databases. The DBMS provides users and programmers with a systematic way to create, retrieve, update and manage data.
A DBMS makes it possible for end users to create, read, update and delete data in a database. The DBMS essentially serves as an interface between the database and end users or application programs, ensuring that data is consistently organized and remains easily accessible.
The DBMS manages three important things: the data, the database engine that allows data to be accessed, locked and modified — and the database schema, which defines the database’s logical structure. These three foundational elements help provide concurrency, security, data integrity and uniform administration procedures. Typical database administration tasks supported by the DBMS include change management, performance monitoring/tuning and backup and recovery. Many database management systems are also responsible for automated rollbacks, restarts and recovery as well as the logging and auditing of activity.
The DBMS is perhaps most useful for providing a centralized view of data that can be accessed by multiple users, from multiple locations, in a controlled manner. A DBMS can limit what data the end user sees, as well as how that end user can view the data, providing many views of a single database schema. End users and software programs are free from having to understand where the data is physically located or on what type of storage media it resides because the DBMS handles all requests.
The DBMS can offer both logical and physical data independence. That means it can protect users and applications from needing to know where data is stored or having to be concerned about changes to the physical structure of data (storage and hardware). As long as programs use the application programming interface (API) for the database that is provided by the DBMS, developers won’t have to modify programs just because changes have been made to the database.
Microsoft Project (MS-Project)
Microsoft Office Project, also referred to as Microsoft Project, is a suite of tools for more efficient project and portfolio management. Project is used in a variety of industries including construction, manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, government, retail, financial services and health care.
The main modules of Microsoft Project include project work and project teams, schedules and finances. Microsoft Project is designed to help users set realistic goals for project teams and customers by creating schedules, distributing resources and managing budgets.
The Project Guide helps users create projects, track tasks, and report results. The software helps contractors gain control over their resources and finances by simplifying the assignment of resources to tasks and budgets to projects. Microsoft Project also comes with a customizable wizard that walks users through the process of project creation, from assigning their tasks and resources to reporting the final results.
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